Abstract (Sub-)millimetre observations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains enable us to study the magnetic fields within protoplanetary disc. However, the interpretation of these observations is complex. One must consider the various effects that alter the measured polarized signal, such as the shape of dust grains, the efficiency of grain alignment, the magnetic field properties and the projection of the signal along the line of sight. We aim at analysing observations of the polarized dust emission by disentangling the effects on the polarization signal in the context of 3D radiative transfer simulations. For this purpose, we developed a code capable of simulating dust grain alignment of aspherical grains and intrinsical polarization of thermal dust emission. We find that the influence of thermal polarization and dust grain alignment on the polarized emission displayed as spatially resolved polarization map or as spectral energy distribution trace disc properties that are not traced in total (unpolarized) emission such as the magnetic field topology. The radiative transfer simulations presented in this work enable the 3D analysis of intrinsically polarized dust emission – observed with e.g. Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) – which is essential to constrain magnetic field properties.
Context. Recent high angular resolution polarimetric continuum observations of circumstellar disks provide new insights into their magnetic field. However, direct constraints are limited to the plane of sky component of the magnetic field. Observations of Zeeman split spectral lines are a potential approach to enhance these insights by providing complementary information.
Aims. We investigate which constraints for magnetic fields in circumstellar disks can be obtained from Zeeman observations of the 113 GHz CN lines. Furthermore, we analyze the requirements to perform these observations and their dependence on selected quantities.
Methods. We simulate the Zeeman splitting with the radiative transfer (RT) code POLARIS (Reissl et al. 2016) extended by our Zeeman splitting RT extension ZRAD (Brauer et al. 2017), which is based on the line RT code Mol3D (Ober et al. 2015).
Results. We find that Zeeman observations of the 113 GHz CN lines provide significant insights into the magnetic field of circumstellar disks. However, with the capabilities of recent and upcoming instrument/observatories, even spatially unresolved observations would be challenging. Nevertheless, these observations are feasible for the most massive disks with a strong magnetic field and high abundance of CN/H. The most restrictive quantity is the magnetic field strength, which should be at least in the order of ∼1 mG. In addition, the inclination of the disk should be around 60º to preserve the ability to derive the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetic field strength and to obtain a sufficiently high circularly polarized flux.
Context. Accurate temperature calculations for circumstellar disks are particularly important for their chemical evolution. Their temperature distribution is determined by the optical properties of the dust grains, which, among other parameters, depend on their radius. However, in most disk studies, only average optical properties and thus an average temperature is assumed to account for an ensemble of grains with different radii.
Aims. We investigate the impact of subdividing the grain radius distribution into multiple sub-intervals on the resulting dust temperature distribution and spectral energy distribution (SED).
Methods. The temperature distribution, the relative grain surface below a certain temperature, the freeze-out radius, and the SED were computed for two different scenarios: (1) Radius distribution represented by 16 logarithmically distributed radius intervals, and (2) radius distribution represented by a single grain species with averaged optical properties (reference).
Results. Within the considered parameter range, i.e., of grain radii between 5 nm and 1 mm and an optically thin and thick disk with a parameterized density distribution, we obtain the following results: In optically thin disk regions, the temperature spread can be as large as ∼63% and the relative grain surface below a certain temperature is lower than in the reference disk. With increasing optical depth, the difference in the midplane temperature and the relative grain surface below a certain temperature decreases. Furthermore, below ∼20 K, this fraction is higher for the reference disk than for the case of multiple grain radii, while it shows the opposite behavior for temperatures above this threshold. The thermal emission in the case of multiple grain radii at short wavelengths is stronger than for the reference disk. The freeze-out radius (snowline) is a function of grain radius, spanning a radial range between the coldest and warmest grain species of ∼30 AU.
Abstract Nanoparticles grown in reactive plasmas and nanodusty plasmas gain high interest from basic science and technology. One of the great challenges of nanodusty plasmas is the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticle size and refractive index. The analysis of scattered light by means of the Mie solution of the Maxwell equations was proposed and used as an in-situ size diagnostic during the past two decades. Today, imaging ellipsometry techniques and the investigation of dense, i.e., optically thick nanoparticle clouds demand for analysis methods to take multiple scattering into account. We present the first 3D Monte-Carlo polarized radiative transfer simulations of the scattered light in a dense nanodusty plasma. This technique extends the existing diagnostic methods for the in-situ analysis of the properties of nanoparticles to systems where multiple scattering cannot be neglected.
Context. Observations of Zeeman split spectral lines represent an important approach to derive the structure and strength of magnetic fields in molecular clouds. In contrast to the uncertainty of the spectral line observation itself, the uncertainty of the analysis method to derive the magnetic field strength from these observations is not been well characterized so far.
Aims. We investigate the impact of several physical quantities on the uncertainty of the analysis method, which is used to derive the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetic field strength from Zeeman split spectral lines. These quantities are the density, temperature, velocity, and the magnetic field strength.
Methods. We simulate the Zeeman splitting of the 1665 MHz OH line with the 3D radiative transfer (RT) extension ZRAD. This extension is based on the line RT code Mol3D (Ober et al. 2015) and has been developed for the POLArized RadIation Simulator POLARIS (Reissl et al. 2016).
Results. Observations of the OH Zeeman effect in typical molecular clouds are not significantly affected by the uncertainty of the analysis method. However, some observations obtained a magnetic field strength of more than ~300 μG, which may result in an uncertainty of the analysis method of >10 %. We derived an approximation to quantify the range of parameters in which the analysis method works sufficiently accurate and provide factors to convert our results to other spectral lines and species as well. We applied these conversion factors to CN and found that observations of the CN Zeeman effect in typical molecular clouds are neither significantly affected by the uncertainty of the analysis method. In addition, we found that the density has almost no impact on the uncertainty of the analysis method, unless it reaches values higher than those typically found in molecular clouds (nH >> 107 cm-3 ). Furthermore, the uncertainty of the analysis method increases, if both the gas velocity and the magnetic field show significant variations along the line-of-sight. However, this increase should be small in Zeeman observations of most molecular clouds considering typical velocities of ~1 km/s.