Radio Views of a Spiral Galaxy

Joachim Köppen Kiel Sep 2017

How it works: the simulation picks at random a gas element in the disk, according to the prescribed geometry, and follows what happens to a photon emitted by the element. Since depending on the radial scale the inner parts are brighter, these elements are picked more often, thus they produce more photons. According to the rotation speed, each emitted photon receives its velocity components. Then, the position and velocities are recomputed according to the specified rotation angles, and the photon appears in the observer's X-Y-plane - but with randomly deviations which correspond to the finite spatial resolution of the telescope - and with a radial velocity which comes from the Z-component of the velocity. This process is carried out as many times as the displayed plot or image has become sufficiently stable, so that the user can stop the simulation.

**inner radius**is inner boundary of the gas disk. This, like all lengths used in the simulation, is given in length units (LU), which may mean any convenient unit, such as kpc for galaxies, or pc for gaseous nebulae, or degrees or minutes of arc ...**outer radius**is outer boundary of the gas disk.**radial scale**: the surface brightness of the gas disk is assumed to decrease exponentially with distance from the centre, with this scalelength. A constant brightness disk has a very large radial scale, say 1000 unit lengths.**thickness**is the thickness of the disk (at the moment the brightness does not vary with height above the galactic plane).**rotation speed**: the disk gas is assumed to be rotating about the galactic centre with this speed, which does not vary with distance from the centre.**velocity dispersion**: takes into account the random motions of the gas clouds in the disk.**inclinationX..**: the angles with which the galaxy is turned around each of the three axes. The Z-axis stands at right angles to the screen.**normal view ...**: this choice chooses between- the normal view with access to all plots
- make one spectrum as seen by a telescope pointed at the specified position. The spectrum is displayed.
- create spectra from n*n positions on a quadratic grid across
the galaxy: the resulting spectra from all positions are shown
by red and blue curves corresponding to each series of positions.
The black curve is the spectrum from the centre of the grid.

The spectral data are written to the page, below the plot, and can be copied into a text file by copy&paste.

**antenna HPBW**: the observed data are smoothed in the two spatial directions by a gaussian function with this FWHM, representing the finite resolution of the antenna beam. Again, this is given in length units LU.**antenna X, Y**: the position where the antenna points at.**n**: the grid has n*n positions, centered on the X,Y position.**step in X,Y**: separation of grid positions.**#photons/spectrum**: the number of photons in each spectrum.

**photons per step**is the number of photons created in each simulation step between two displays of the data. Choose a small value (10) to see how a plot is built up; take a high value (1000) when you're too impatient to see the final result in a histogram.**photons now**displays the number of photons created for the current plot.**no. of bins**is the number of bins in the histogram, and the number of pixels in X and Y direction in the intensity and vrad maps. The maximum number is 100.**fly dirt plot**: each point is plotted as a small red dot at the chosen abscissa and ordinate.**histogram**: plots the relative number of occurrences of the abscissa.**intensity map**: plots the relative number of occurrences of each pixel (or photons) of the chosen abscissa and ordinate. These numbers are coded by colour, with black=0 and red=maximum value, according to the colour band shown at the right. The scaling is linear or logarithmic. A plot of X and Y represents an image of the galaxy, with these numbers showing the intensity of the pixels.**Vrad colour map**: when chosen to display the X and Y coordinates it shows pixels with positive radial velocity (receeding) in shades of red, and pixels with negative radial velocity (approaching) in blue.**X =**and**Y =**: the abscissa and ordinate of the plot can be chosen from these parameters:- X, Y: the coordinates with respect to the centre of the image
- distance from centre
- radial velocity

**Set range**: when this radio button is clicked, the plotting limits are taken from the associated fields (min, max)**start**: to begin the simulation**stop**: to halt the simulation**resume**: to continue with the simulation**clear**: to wipe the plot**Mouse position**: displays the coordinates of the present position of the mouse. In the false colour maps, it also shows the actual number as well as the relative number of photons in the pixel.

model

inner radius [LU]

outer radius [LU]

radial scale [LU]

disk thickness [LU]

rotation speed [km/s]

dVrot/dr [km/s/LU]

velocity dispersion [km/s]

inclinationY [°]

inclinationZ [°]

antenna HPBW [LU]

antenna X [LU]

antenna Y [LU]

n

step in X, Y [LU]

#photons/spectrum